with recursive (top level)

Apache DerbyBigQueryDb2 (LUW)H2MariaDBMySQLOracle DBPostgreSQLSQL ServerSQLite20072009201120132015201720192021✓ 3.8.3 - 3.43.0⊘ 3.5.7 - 3.7.11⚠ 2008R2 - 2022a✓ 8.4 - 16⊘ 8.3⚠ 11gR2 - 21ca⊘ 11gR1✓ 8.0.11 - 8.0.34⊘ 5.0 - 5.7✓ 10.2 - 10.11⊘ 5.1 - 10.1✓ 1.4.199 - 2.2.220⊘ 1.4.191⚠ 9.7 - 11.5.8ab⚠ 2.0c⊘ -
  1. Without keyword recursive
  2. No join in recursive branch—use comma-join (,)
  3. Without column list: WITH RECURSIVE query_name AS (SELECT…)

The with recursive clause allows a query to refer to its own output:

WITH RECURSIVE query_name (column_name, …) AS (
     FROM …
     FROM query_name -- <= Note the self-reference here
) [, …]
  FROM query_name

Normative References

The with recursive clause is defined in ISO/IEC 9075-2:2023 §7.17 as part of optional feature T131, “Recursive query”.

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